«

»

Jun 12

The Filipino Garibaldi

c
(above: President Aguinaldo with veterans of the Revolution at the funeral of President Roxas in 1948)

I’ve put together a little photo gallery, click on the photos or hover your mouse pointer over them for the captions.

A British writer once referred to Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy as “The Filipino Garibaldi,” and the comparison seems appropriate. The story of his life has yet to be properly written; much of it will include his long battle to assert the Magdalo version of our history.
That version asserts June 12, 1898 as Independence Day. Our choice of June 12, 1898 as Independence Day, instead of say, August 29, 1896 when Bonifacio issued a proclamation calling on the citizenry to rise up in arms (the date of the famous tearing of cedulas being mired in controversy to this day), is interesting to me.

What is it, about Bonifacio’s August 28, 1896 Proclamation, that makes it unfit as the founding document of our nationhood?

This manifesto is for all of you:

It is absolutely necessary for us to stop at the earliest possible time the nameless oppressions being perpetrated on the sons of the country who are now suffering the brutal punishment and tortures in jails, and because of this please let all the brethren know that on Saturday, the 29th of the current month, the revolution shall commence according to our agreement. For this purpose it is necessary for all towns to rise simultaneously and attack Manila at the same time. Anybody who obstructs this sacred ideal of the people will be considered a traitor and an enemy, except if he is ill or is not physically fit, in which case he shall be tried according to the regulations we have put in force.

Mount of Liberty, 28th August 1896.

Andres Bonifacio

What eventually transpired, of course, was that the professionals asserted control of the Revolution as Bonifacio’s class background and lack of success as a military leader turned the provincial worthies among his supporters into critics, then rivals.
By 1897, the Katipunan as the vehicle for the Revolution, and as its government, became increasingly unattractive to provincial leaders who may have been unsettled by the subordination of the old hierarchies to what they could’ve increasingly resented as a bunch of urban amateurs. And perhaps, the romantic belief of Bonifacio that Castilian mores ought to be purged, replacing even the concept of nationhood as Filipinas with his idea of the new polity being Katagalugan, was just too strange and smacked of the kind of leveling the provincial worthies felt was too radical.

For this reason, this song, Marangal na Dalit ng Katagalugan, which was really our first national anthem, is hardly remembered and indeed, had to be reconstructed by the composer long after the events of 1896-1897.

Marangal na Dalit ng Katagalugan – Inang Laya

Details can be found in The Bonifacio Papers:

Bonifacio mentions in his letter that he has received a copy of the Himno Nacional that Nakpil had sent. Julio Nakpil later recalled that he composed this piece — also known as the Marangal na Dalit ng Katagalugan — at the request of Bonifacio when they were encamped with Katipunan troops in the vicinity of Balara in November 1896. He remembered the hymn still being played in Cavite and Laguna in 1898, but as the history textbooks tell Aguinaldo then chose as the national anthem the composition by Julian Felipe originally titled the Marcha Filipina Magdalo. In 1903 Nakpil reworked his Marangal na Dalit as a tribute to Rizal under the title Salve, Patria, but the only surviving copies of the original score were destroyed in 1945 during the battle for Manila. The version of Marangal na Dalit we have today was reconstructed by Nakpil from memory when he was in his eighties. The form chosen by Nakpil, the dalit, was traditionally a sung prayer or supplication, and his hymn, as readers may hear, is very solemn, almost mournful. To lift the spirits, it is good to listen to a different piece by Nakpil that is also highly evocative of those revolutionary times, the lively pasa-doble militar entitled Pasig Pantayanin.

The victory of Aguinaldo was as much an assertion of the historic destiny and hierarchical sureties of the principalia; when he was inaugurated president in Malolos, the cane he carried was a symbol of authority dating back to the days of the cabezas de barangay, of which he’d been one, after all.

Here’s another song, Inang Laya’s version of Alerta, Katipunan! which was originally a Spanish military march. The music was adopted by the Katipuneros and new lyrics added. I’ve often wondered why this isn’t the official march of the Philippine Army.

Alerta Katipunan – Inang Laya

Anyway, so today is, officially, the 111th anniversary of the Proclamation of Philippine Independence, and the culmination of our flag days. June 12 has been Flag Day since 1941. We’ve chosen June 12 because the trappings of independence were displayed on that day: formal proclamation of independence, a flag, an anthem.

Not content with a single day, in 1998 an innovation was put in place, “flag days,” beginning on May 28, the date the flag was first carried aloft in battle.

1898_flag.jpg

The flag, as rendered by Eric Agoncillo Ambata in an approximation of the 1898 ratio and features. You can see my June 5, 2005 entry for details on how our flag belongs to a Flag Family that includes Cuba and Puerto Rico.

The Proclamation of Independence in Kawit on June 12, 1898 stated the symbolism of the flag:

And lastly, it was results unanimously that this Nation, already free and independent as of this day, must used the same flag which up to now is being used, whose designed and colored are found described in the attached drawing, the white triangle signifying the distinctive emblem of the famous Society of the “Katipunan” which by means of its blood compact inspired the masses to rise in revolution; the three stars, signifying the three principal Islands of these Archipelago – Luzon, Mindanao, and Panay where the revolutionary movement started; the sun representing the gigantic step made by the son of the country along the path of Progress and Civilization; the eight rays, signifying the eight provinces – Manila, Cavite, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Laguna, and Batangas – which declares themselves in a state of war as soon as the first revolt was initiated; and the colors of Blue, Red, and White, commemorating the flag of the United States of America, as a manifestation of our profound gratitude towards this Great Nation for its disinterested protection which it lent us and continues lending us.

Considering all the debates concerning the original colors and design of the flag, it’s a pity that the “attached drawing” has never been found (details on the debates, etc. can be found in my Flags of the World article on the Philippine flag).

Apolinario Mabini in La Revolucion Filipina was of the opinion the proclamation of independence was premature, and the document read in Kawit, defective:

…I realized also that the proclamation of independence which was being made that day was premature and imprudent because the Americans were concealing their true designs while we were making ours manifest. I foresaw, of course, that because of this want of caution the American commanders and forces would be on guard against the revolutionists, and the United States consuls on the China coast would sabotage the purchase of arms for the revolution. However, unable to prevent the proclamation because I had arrived too late to do so, I kept my peace and set myself to studying in detail the measures most urgently called for in the existing situation.

After the capitulation of Manila, the Philippine Government moved from Bacoor, Cavite, to Malolos, Bulacan, where the newly created Congress held its first session. The first results of this assembly’s deliberations were the ratification of the proclamation of independence prematurely made in Kawit, and the decision to draft a constitution for the establishment of a Philippine Republic.

I haven’t located a copy of the September 29, 1898 ratification of the proclamation of independence, but it would surely make for interesting reading, compared to the Proclamation made at Kawit.

Aguinaldo wrote his own True History of the Philippine Revolution to rebut Mabini. There’s two sections concerning the flag:

In conformity with my orders issued on the 1st of September, all Philippine vessels hoisted the national flag, the Marines of the Filipino flotilla being the first to execute that order. Our little flotilla consisted of some eight Spanish steam launches (which had been captured) and five vessels of greater dimensions, namely, the Taaleño, Baldyan, Taal, Bulucan, and Purisima Concepcion. These vessels were presented to the Philippine Government by their native owners and were converted by us, at our Arsenal, into gunboats, 8 and 9 centimetre guns, taken from the sunken Spanish warships, being mounted on board.

Ah! what a beautiful, inspiring joyous sight that flag was fluttering in the breeze from the topmasts of our vessels, side by side, as it were, with the ensigns of other and greater nations, among whose mighty warships our little cruisers passed to and fro dipping their colours, the ensign of Liberty and Independence! With what reverence and adoration it was viewed as it suddenly rose in its stately loneliness crowning our victories, and, as it were, smiling approvingly upon the undisciplined Philippine Army in the moment of its triumphs over the regular forces of the Spanish Government! One’s heart swells and throbs again with the emotions of extreme delight; the soul is filled with pride, and the goal of patriotism seems well-nigh reached in the midst of such a magnificent spectacle!

At the end of June I called on Admiral Dewey, who, after complimenting me on the rapid triumphs of the Philippine Revolution, told me he had been asked by the German and French Admirals why he allowed the Filipinos to display on their vessels a flag that was not recognized. Admiral Dewey said his reply to the French and German Admirals was – with his knowledge and consent the Filipinos used that flag, and, apart from this, he was of opinion that in view of the courage and steadfastness of purpose displayed in the war against the Spaniards the Filipinos deserved the right to use their flag.

I thereupon expressed to the Admiral my unbounded gratitude for such unequivocal protection, and on returning to the shore immediately ordered the Philippine flotilla to convey troops to the other provinces of Luzon and to the Southern islands, to wage war against the Spaniards who garrisoned them.

And this one, about Commodore Dewey:

The Dictatorial Government decided that the proclamation of Independence should take place on the 12th June, the ceremony in connection therewith to be held in the town of Kawit. With this object in view I sent a Commission to inform the Admiral of the arrangement and invite him to be present on the occasion of the formal proclamation of Independence, a ceremony which was solemnly and impressively conducted. The Admiral sent his Secretary to excuse him from taking part in the proceedings, stating the day fixed for the ceremony was mail day…

During that month (July) Admiral Dewey accompanied by General Anderson visited Cavite, and after the usual exchange of courtesies he said- “You have had ocular demonstration and confirmation of all I have told you and promised you. How pretty your flag is! It has a triangle, and is something like the Cubans’. Will you give me one as a memento when I go back home?”

I replied that I was fully satisfied with his word of honour and of the needlessness of having our agreement in documentary form. As to the flag he wanted, he could have one whenever he wished.

The Admiral continued: Documents are useless when there is no sense of honour on one side, as was the case in respect of the compact with the Spaniards, who failed to act up to what had been written and signed. Have faith in my word, and I assure you that the United States will recognize the independence of the country. But I recommend you to keep a good deal of what we have said and agreed secret at present. I further request you to have patience if any of our soldiers insult any Filipinos, for being Volunteers they are as yet undisciplined.

I replied that I would bear in mind all his advice regarding cautiousness, and that with respect to the misconduct of the soldiers orders had already been issued enjoining forbearance, and I passed the same remarks to the Admiral about unpleasantness possibly arising through lack of discipline of our own forces.

The flag was banned by the Americans from 1907-1919. From 1919 to 1941, Flag Day was on October 30. See How our flag flew again by Joe Quirino.

pre_1936_2

The stampita above was part of a series sold to raise funds for the Independence Missions from 1919-1933, particularly after a court case decided public funds could not be appropriated for the purpose of lobbying for independence. It shows how the mythical face on the sun was already passing from popular use, although the 7:8 ratio and non-equilateral triangle of the 1898 design were still current in the 1920s and early 1930s.

inaugural-parade

At the inauguration of the Commonwealth on November 15, 1935, the giant Philippine flag, made of Japanese silk, was a gift from General Artemio Ricarte, who was still in exile in Japan, as he’d refused to recognize the American conquest. His gift of the Philippine flag was a token of solidarity with his countrymen as they embarked on full autonomy, the penultimate step to independence.

phil_flag.jpg

The flag after the 1936 reforms that standardized its component parts and other features. To summarize the main differences, the old ratio of 7:8 was changed to 1:2 and the triangle was made an equilateral one, and the rays of the sun regularized and the mythical face, dropped.

1fightvetxx
Our flag is unique as it is reversed in times of war; this has happened twice. From 1898-1901 when the First Republic was at war with the United States; and from 1941 to 1945 when we were at war with Japan. The poster above, commissioned by the Commonwealth government-in-exile, is also interesting because it confirms the use of Cuban blue for the flag.

When Aguinaldo participated in the first commemoration of June 12 as flag day, in 1941, he did so as a public act of endorsement and acceptance of the 1936 changes. During the Japanese Occupation, to distinguish the de facto Puppet Republic from the de jure Commonwealth, an effort was made to revive the 1898 design but it did not catch on.

88 comments

Skip to comment form

  1. SoP

    Stop, just stop. It doesn’t matter which group instigated the revolution or never needed one. In the end, all groups were defeated by the Americans. They’re the architect of this whole thing.

    As for your obsession about rivers, please be aware that this is not a unique Filipino phenomenon. All cities arose near rivers (New York-Hudson, Cairo-Nile, London-Thames, Manila-Pasig, Baghdad-Tigris Euphrates, etc etc).

  2. Jesusa Bernardo

    That’s polite, SoP. Yes, you should have stopped earlier, not bringing in the Muslim-tribes-mostly-not-conquered line because that’s really BASIC in Philippine history.

    About rivers, I can’t be obsessed with such–I don’t even know how to swim, LOL. What I see is your obsession against a national, non-colonial language, except perhaps if it be your own or your parents’ dialect.

    You’re teaching me that rivers is not a unique Filipino phenomenon? Who claims it is? You an grade-school teacher or something? Ridiculous, non-convincing line of argument. That’s cheap, deflective tactic. Confront the argument, or is it your manner of way out?

  3. SoP

    “What I see is your obsession against a national, non-colonial language, except perhaps if it be your own or your parents’ dialect.”

    English should be the national language. Any language that will unite 80+ tongues should be for the purpose of uniting the economic and scientific aspirations of a nation. Most of our laws are already in English. Global trade is conducted in English. Scientific research and findings are published in English. The global lingua franca is English.

    The purpose of any national government, I believe, is to facilitate trade and national defense ONLY. They should keep their hands off cultural development and leave that to the local governments. In the 1930’s it was excusable that they didn’t know English would be the global language. But it would be unforgivable now to keep ignoring that fact.

  4. Jesusa Bernardo

    @SoP

  5. Jesusa Bernardo

    @SoP

    In the context of your seemingly knowledgeable exposition on Philippine history and our diverse multi-ethnic culture, and rantings against colonial subjugation, your statement/stand that English ought to be the national language is pathetic.

    I can understand the reluctance of our Visayan sisters and brothers against Tagalog as the base for the Filipino national language because it seems to be sort of a tongue-twister for them. That is no excuse to favor a colonial tongue and be close-minded about it, however. For patriotism’s sake, why not be open to compromises, such as having more of Visayan words injected into the Filipino vocabulary or work out something else?

    Re English being a global language, the US seems on its way out. We should be learning Chinese to prepare for future trends? As for federalist issues, I also believe in greater local autonomy provided enough safeguards against abuse by local officials are made, but for the national government to completely get its hands off cultural issues is ridiculous.

  6. SoP

    There are many countries, colonized or not by English speaking empires, who use English to prosper their economies: Singapore, Hong Kong, India, Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Finland to name a few. To ban English just because we were colonized by an English speaking empire is closed-minded.

  7. d0d0ng

    SoP, thanks for such bold position – English should be the national language. It does not have to be an American English or British English. A national language is one that is shared in common by many through usage. It is just common sense. You don’t need to translate H1N1 virus. Everybody knows what it is. Our engineers and scientists are handicapped by language alone. The current mandatory Tagalog language in high school fall flat on the face of the government officials as we are sending skilled welders abroad who barely speak English.

  8. d0d0ng

    Jesusa on, “I can understand the reluctance of our Visayan sisters and brothers against Tagalog as the base for the Filipino national language because it seems to be sort of a tongue-twister for them.”

    Excuse me, sister. You can gloat how tagalogs feel superior to other Filipinos but you are just encouraging divisiveness. It is in your attitude and the attitude of the tagalogs that fuel reluctance. In short, tagalogs created their own problem and conveniently blame others. Tagalogs should look at themselves in the mirror.

    The other way to look at it, we (the non-tagalogs) can speak multiple languages and dialects including tagalog. On that scale alone you are already behind.

  9. d0d0ng

    Jesusa, you need to address your colonial rantings at its roots. It makes no sense you embraced Jesusa, a name derived from the Catholic religion, the pricipal tool of the colonialist. You should start changing your name first than fiddling with Philippines which majority of us will not simply allow.

  10. Jesusa Bernardo

    @SoP
    Yes, it would be closed-minded and silly to ban English. I only want a non-colonial national language, definitely not English, as official language. The constitutional provision for an evolving “Filipino” language is good but it should include less Tagalized English words and more of vocabulary words from the dialects.

  11. Jesusa Bernardo

    @ dOdOng, you’re either misinterpreting me or putting words into my mouth. Who’s gloating over what?

    Definitely, Tagalogs are not superior to other tribes or regional groups here in much the same way as those Spaniards and Americans are in no way really superior to Filipinos. What I meant is that Tagalog is harder or tongue-twisting for Visayans who actually find it easier to speak English because of the apparently more harmonious inflections between the latter and their dialects. I know this because I have Visayan friends/kins. Now, that proves I’m not behind and that you merely negatively interpreted my statement.

    As for addressing colonialism at its roots and not embracing my name, you mean entirely uproot what is now Philippine culture? Remove and ban all the Catholic/Christian churches and the faith, etc.? Don’t you yourself recognize such impossibility when you earlier wrote that “History is already written”? Don’t contradict yourself, sister.

    Re your analogy of my name and the country name, the logic is fallacious. “Jesusa” is not a colonial name, unlike “Philippines.” Jesusa obviously derives from “Jesus” which is the name of the Christian God’s son, which by itself is not the colonizer: the religion of Christianity based on His teachings has indeed been used as tool of colonialism but how do we know for sure that He approves of it? On the other, “Philippines” derived from King Philip II who actually pursued colonial policies against our ancestors.

    Getting rid of the country’s colonial name is not fiddling but deeply symbolic. If and when our nation will have the guts to do so will signal the time when our people are finally able to recognize the problem of our pathetic colonial mindset and blurred identity.

  12. d0d0ng

    “Don’t you yourself recognize such impossibility when you earlier wrote that “History is already written”?”

    It is your mission not mine but you sounded you acknowledge and face your own wall of impossibility.

    As usual, you can pick and choose your colonial rantings but fully embraced the religion of Father Damaso. Smile.

  13. Jesusa Bernardo

    @ dOdOng,

    Oops, the “wall of impossibility” refers to your advice for me to “address colonial rantings” at its roots. My Wed, 17th Jun 2009 9:07 pm post is clear as to what my “mission” (you say) is. Just forgot it, glossing it over, or you’re simply into a distortion game? Anyway, here it is again:

    & I’m in no mission to completely get rid of colonial culture. Hey, we’re in the era of globalization, which does present some advantages. What I wish is for us to assert our native roots, value MORE our pre-colonial identity and tongue, and inculcate nationalism & patriotic unity amidst diversity so the youth could at least be truly proud of who we are.

    As for the “religion of Father Damaso,” hardly my religion. Not even the religion of the Pope, at least not fully. Those Spanish friars were one of the earliest sinful breeders of the Filipino mestizos and mestizas and like our patriotic heroes, I fully shun those robed fat-bellied foreigners who were hardly Christian in behaviour and looked down upon the women of this country more than a century ago.

  14. SoP

    Estancia en la cocina, mujer. Estancia fuera de la politica.

  15. SoP

    Just kidding.

  16. SoP

    “Jesusa Bernardo on Thu, 18th Jun 2009 2:51 pm

    Re English being a global language, the US seems on its way out. We should be learning Chinese to prepare for future trends?”

    Most of us think U S of A will be top dog nation for the foreseeable future. China ain’t tha shit.

    http://www.quezon.ph/2009/04/03/chimerica-or-greater-china/#comments

  17. d0d0ng

    “the religion of Christianity based on His teachings has indeed been used as tool of colonialism but how do we know for sure that He approves of it?”

    Since you are a catholic, it is not wise to question the order of the pope. The pope ordered the colonization of pagan lands including Philippines. Killings in the name of religion is not atrocities but a mission. It just produced a national hero -Rizal. Of course, the Filipinos are not the only ones subjected to this religious military campaign of colonization. It was all over the world. Numerous crusades were done to regain control of power. The religious military campaign is not limited only to muslims, jews and other pagans. As a matter of fact, the pope ordered to sack Constatinople the seat of Orthodox Christians and annihilated its christian brothers and sisters. So the current pope supposedly infallible has to apologize to make reconciliation.

    You would rather embrace the colonial faith than question it.

  18. d0d0ng

    SoP, you are so funny!

    Jesusa on, “As for the “religion of Father Damaso,” hardly my religion. Not even the religion of the Pope, at least not fully. I fully shun those robed fat-bellied foreigners who…”

    Father Damaso is a Franciscan priest. Meaning, he is the instrument of the pope. You would not question the pope.

  19. d0d0ng

    Jesusa on, “Hey, we’re in the era of globalization, which does present some advantages. What I wish is for us to assert our native roots…”

    Jesusa on, “Those Spanish friars were one of the earliest sinful breeders of the Filipino mestizos and mestizas…”

    Why only native roots when Filipino mestizos and mestizas are definitely the advantages of globalization. Look at Victoria Secret models. The world top models are Brazilians – the product of native Amazonians mixed with Portugese and European bloodlines.

  20. d0d0ng

    Jesusa on, “What I wish is for us to assert our native roots, value MORE our pre-colonial identity and tongue, and inculcate nationalism & patriotic unity amidst diversity so the youth could at least be truly proud of who we are.”

    This statement is worthy at beauty pageant. However, the natural preference by women to seek partner to improve ones stock cause unintended consequence of eliminating pre-colonial attributes. Nationalism and patriotism is lost in the voracious apetite for imported goods. But don’t get me wrong, we are proud when Manny Pacquiao floored any foreign looking opponents at the ring. I know he is not your hero but he is mine. An elementary school dropout which cannot be compared to the illustrado Rizal, sold doughnuts at early age, stowed away in a ship to Manila at age 14, dream big to be a world boxer, is the only Filipino who break records to become world boxing champion in multiple weight classes. He showed the world that a Filipino with humility, no matter how limited his resources, lived in poverty and against all odds can rise to the occasion, fulfill his dreams, prove his worth and provided a shining example and hope to all hardworking Filipinos.

  21. Jesusa Bernardo

    @dOdOng

    Wow, I didn’t know that Fr. Damaso’s a Catholic (sarcasm). And you’re too presumptuous. Did I say I AM a Catholic? Didn’t I write “Not even the religion of the Pope, at least not fully?” I was born and educated a Catholic, but my religion is now eclectic so don’t expect me to swallow hook, line, and sinker what the Pope tells. By the way, aren’t you aware that the Pope has already apologized for the abuses of the RC church in the past? Sister, better update yourself.

    Now, did you bother surveying my blog so you can know my views, including of the RC church? And are you really reading my posts here, or you’re so desperate a representative of the malansang isda tribe that you readily shoot fallacious/misleading arguments from the hip?

    Nationalism good only for “beauty pageant”? You’re really unraveling yourself here–colonially miseducated, possibly with less than half of endemic bloodline, explaining the wanting sense of national identity.

    As for your Victoria secret point, look how you defend Fr. Damaso now! Of course, a good chunk of Filipinos now are of mixed blood. One more reason why its impossible to fully eliminate the colonial in our culture. Doesn’t mean, however, that we should not assert more our base, local culture.

  22. Jesusa Bernardo

    @ dOdOng:

    As for Pacquiao, I agree that he’s a shining example to Filipinos as to excellence and achievement. He is even Asia’s pride because he demolished Briton Hatton. The thing is he still can’t be a hero because he has supported the illegitimate and anti-people Gloria Arroyo. Perhaps more importantly, when you say “hero” in the noble sense of the word, you refer to a person who fights for some cause WITHOUT any expected compensation at the risk of losing much, his/her life included. Pacquiao showed us all the excellence of a Filipino, but he gets and expects millions of dollars for every fight.

    Re your H1N1 argument in favor of English, look out the international window and see how more than half the world not on English (as official language) are doing rather well.

    Peace, dOdOng, we’re already off topic. This article is on Aguinaldo supposedly being a Garibaldi or excellent revolutionist. Bonifacio, the Father of our revolution vs. Spain whom he ordered killed can’t be far behind, and so are the issues of the Supremo’s death, what happened to the revolution, and colonialism/imperialism that continues in different forms today.

    @SoP

    I wished you had lived in the colonial era and told those friars with bastard half-bred kids this:

    “Estancia en el convento, padre. Estancia fuera de la politica y relación con las mujeres indias.”

    :) Adios.

  23. d0d0ng

    Jesusa, our discussion here relates to Aguinaldo and other personalities that brings independence. We are not that off especially if one has to question the relevance of colonialism, nationalism and patriotism in todays global economy and greater number of Filipinos working abroad.

    Am sure you could have better addressed the nationalism issue which you brought-up yourself without desperately tagging opposing views with “colonially miseducated”, “malansang isda tribe” and other needless personal attacks. You become so defensive and confused as saying that us wanting national identity. I don’t have a national identity crisis. You do when you start fiddling with names just to feel good.

  24. d0d0ng

    Jesusa on, “As for your Victoria secret point, look how you defend Fr. Damaso now!”

    The Father Damaso character in Noli Mi Tangere is an animal and indefensible, you know that. The point is more about the innocent offsprings, in the novel referring to Maria Clara.

    In asserting your native roots and pre-colonial identity, would that be an exclusion of mix breeds Filipinos which evidently flooded the showbiz, movie, modeling and advertising industry? It creates divisiveness instead of unity.

  25. d0d0ng

    Jesusa on, “The thing is he still can’t be a hero because he has supported the illegitimate and anti-people Gloria Arroyo.”

    So far, that is not in the definition of a hero, too much politics and has nothing to do how Manny become so recognized in the world.

    Jesusa on, “When you say “hero” in the noble sense of the word, you refer to a person who fights for some cause WITHOUT any expected compensation at the risk of losing much, his/her life included. Pacquiao expects millions of dollars for every fight.”

    You are focusing and jumping too quickly to the prize and glory rather than what made the person get there in the first place. Money does not make a hero, so having millions or expectancy as argument is not relevant.

  26. Jesusa Bernardo

    @dOdOng

    Re “colonially miseducated” and “malansang isda,” was Jose Rizal being “personal” when he wrote the latter? Sorry but those are hardly personal attacks–more of calling a spade a spade.

    And I’m not merely fiddling with names. You’ve simply embraced colonialism that’s why you won’t let go of the colonial name “Philippines.” You simply prefer imported goods, Western features, language and ideas, which is why you shun your native roots. As simple as that. You need to open up to the beauty of our endemic race and culture.

    Re mixed blood Filipinos, didn’t I already address that (Fri, 19th Jun 2009 10:05 am)?. Here it is again: “One more reason why its impossible to fully eliminate the colonial in our culture.” Hey, as much as I’m a nationalist, I’m a human rights advocate. And any policy of giving importance to actresses/actors and models with native features (but not totally excluding mestizos/mestizas) will surely meet protests but will hardly be divisive.

    Re Pacquiao, I think you’ve confused excellence for heroism. Let me put it this way: fighting for a sports championship of the professional kind is no heroic activity. How could Pacquiao be a hero only on the basis of his victories? Now, if beyond his glorious wins and money he has exerted great (as in GREAT) efforts to help elevate his people’s conditions, then he’d rightfully be called a hero. Instead, he has been a willing instrument of an illegitimate/repudiated “President” who has trampled upon our rights, resources and sensibilities (and he did get political and, apparently, also business favors for supporting Arroyo).

  27. d0d0ng

    Jesusa Bernardo unlike you, I have no false pretension that I am a Filipino and came from the Philippines. You made Philippines a malansang isda just because it was after King of Spain. Fiddling with names will certainly not deodorize the country especially you, the way you think Philippines is a country of stench. Change your name Jesusa to something native, it doesn’t suit you well with your anti-colonial driven pursuit of roots. Smile.

    Most of us already regarded Manny Pacquiao as a hero, with or without your negative thoughts nor with or without the President endorsement. Your own confusion and anti-Gloria stance will not change anything. Sorry. ;)

  28. SoP

    No Tagalog parents name their daughters such beautiful native names anymore like Mutya, Ditas, Marikit, Ligaya, Dalisay, Bituin, Maya. I guess it’s because they sound weird.

  29. d0d0ng

    Maya? The small bird that stole the grains from the hardworking farmers? LOL.

    Jesusa on, “You simply prefer imported goods, Western features, language and ideas, which is why you shun your native roots.”

    Excuse me. Our national hero Dr. Jose Rizal discarded his short native girlfriend Segunda Katigbak in favor of tall and lighter complexioned various girlfriends including Europeans and a Japanese to begin with. Not only that, the ideal image of a Filipina is Maria Clara, a half breed mestiza. And Maria Makiling, a light olive compexioned legend recently featured by another mestiza Karylle Tatlonghari. Filipino women spend money on skin cream whitening products when scrubbing skin with stone turned to bruises. Where is the patronage of dark native skin? You should start peddling your anti-colonial rhetorics to Filipino women.

    At least me, I keep brewing dark cocoa from Philippine cacao than Starbucks mocha latte. Unlike Rizal, I am vegetarian as far as women.

  30. Jesusa Bernardo

    @dOdOng

    Are you saying you’re not Filipino at all? Perhaps, hardly of Filipino blood, or hardly set foot on Philippine soil? What’s your business and authority talking about Philippine culture and affairs then? Now I understand. Your identification is ‘global.’ Must explain the confused perspective, fallacious analogies, and wanting logic.

    Just imagine anyone dismissing the issue of colonial name derived from perhaps the strongest symbol of Spanish colonialism as nothing and, at the same time, equating a derivation of a non-Western, Jewish name of a GOD (connotation: universal, above regional concerns) as colonial. How incomprehensible. Smile.

    “… especially you, the way you think Philippines is a country of stench.”

    Worse, you put your own words into someone else’s mouth. Short of calling you a liar, I’ll settle for ‘desperate.’

    Most of us already regarded Manny Pacquiao as a hero.

    Speak for yourself. Who are the others? Fellow non-Filipinos?
    I’m hardly surprised that you’re denigrating the concept of a “hero.” Given that you have practically no sense of patriotism not even Filipino roots (?), based on your admission, it should be no surprised that superstar boxers are easily viewed heroes by your gullible mind.

    Either that or as I wrote earlier, you’ve confused excellence with heroism. How hard is it to differentiate the two concepts, anyway?

    “with or without the President endorsement”

    You better add that Pacquiao has endorsed for a long time the bogus Gloria Arroyo. Wait a minute, he just changed political affiliation and is now with Erap. He probably realized that he was NOT regarded a hero in the Visayas, not even as a worthy congressional representative, because of his identification with Gloria.

  31. Jesusa Bernardo

    @ dOdOng
    “Maya? The small bird that stole the grains from the hardworking farmers? LOL.”

    Did you just realize how ridiculous your post is? Your anti-colonial name obsession is really getting in the way of your thinking.

    You’re an anti-environmentalist as well? Or you only fail to appreciate Philippine flora and fauna. You want those wonderful small bird species eradicated or something? For someone who claims global, you’re certainly delimited. (FYI, What the maya do, the ‘stealing’ from farmers, is also done by most other birds elsewhere).

    The maya used to be our national bird, I believe. It was replaced not because they “stole” from the farmers but only to give way to the Philippine Eagle, now threatened.

    As to Rizal’s later days, I’m now sure the scholarship on that part of his life is well founded, so no comment. Ask the Rizalists. Then again, if ever that’s true, that only proves Rizal was human, with flaws but noble and patriotic enough to recognize the need to love our own tongue. Or perhaps, that Rizal is also global, but still retains the patriotism every Filipino should have.

    Your Maria Clara point only highlights your confusion, if not attempts at misleading arguments. Excuse me, but who made Maria Clara the “ideal” Filipina? Either the Spanish colonialists themselves or those colonial-minded elite minions of Aguinaldo or whoever. You know my stand on the fathering acts of friars. Come on. Do better.

    “Where is the patronage of dark native skin?”
    You’re really confused, or out to confuse. Exactly the obtaining problem of our society that should be addressed by a more nationalist education program. Also, “native” is basically three variants–the dark as in Aeta dark, and the Malay/Indones skins that range from the morena to the “kayumangging kaligatan.”

    At least me, I keep brewing dark cocoa from Philippine cacao than Starbucks mocha latte.”
    We do have something in common. But I’m sure I patronize much more native goods than you do.

    “Unlike Rizal, I am vegetarian as far as women.”
    Doesn’t that sound sexist? What are women to you, anyhow–to be classified as meat or vegetables? And you’re in between? And why would you want more than one woman? Oh well….

    Your exchange with you is getting to be a non-debate. Pointless and an almost utter waste of time. From this point forward, unless you can come up with worthier posts the next time, you’re free to make yourself look ridiculous all on your own. Adios.

  32. Jesusa Bernardo

    @ SOP,

    Why such beautiful names as Mutya, Ditas, Marikit, Ligaya, Dalisay, Bituin, and Maya are rarely, if at all, used anymore is an unfortunate trend. They sound “weird” today only because it’s out of fashion.

    Unlike fashion trends that generally return at some point, however, such names won’t see any resurrection unless the Tagalog language is re-emphasized. If the words marikit and ligaya are only rarely used in conversations today, any such usage as names will indeed sound weird–forever perhaps.

  33. d0d0ng

    Jesusa on, “Just imagine anyone dismissing the issue of colonial name derived from perhaps the strongest symbol of Spanish colonialism as nothing and, at the same time, equating a derivation of a non-Western, Jewish name of a GOD (connotation: universal, above regional concerns) as colonial. How incomprehensible. Smile.”

    As you decried in your own words, “outright dismissal of my thesis shows your colonial embrace of our colonial culture, based on your seemingly unthinking, if not unpatriotic, wholehearted embrace of the term “Philippines.”

    Yet, you cling to “Jesusa”, a name that would not have been introduced in the Philippines without the colonialist religion used to subdue any indio resistance to Spanish authorities. Who can blame your Catholic parents to name you “Jesusa” instead of “Bathala” and sent you to catholic school. Your drive to get rid of colonial “Philippines” and blind to colonial “Jesusa” is not incomprehensible but just hypocrisy.

  34. d0d0ng

    Jesusa on, “Did you just realize how ridiculous your post is? Your anti-colonial name obsession is really getting in the way of your thinking.”

    Correction, I am not anti-colonial since I am opposed to your anti-colonial drive of changing “Philippines” to native “Tagalog”. Evidently, your thinking is getting in the way of your post.

  35. d0d0ng

    Jesusa on, “Unlike fashion trends that generally return at some point, however, such names won’t see any resurrection unless the Tagalog language is re-emphasized. If the words “marikit” and “ligaya” are only rarely used in conversations today, any such usage as names will indeed sound weird–forever perhaps.”

    So let me follow you to use native word in lieu of colonially introduced names. The native “Bathala” will not sound weird-forever if you begin using it instead of “Jesusa”.

    Cheers to Bathala!

  36. d0d0ng

    Hmmm. Bathala is still weird, so let me just call you Jess since we are using English.

    I truly appreciate Philippine fauna. Maya tasted better than chicken as fattened with grains from the ricefields. Those wonderful small tasty birds will not be eradicated even if eaten by farmers. It is the disappearing ricelands that will hasten its extinction (the environmentalist in me, haha). Regardless that I ate it before, I still considered Maya the national bird even if it was replaced by the ferocious near extinct eagle because it is a resilient specie that best describe the Filipinos. The macho appeal brought the big eagle as national bird by US influence president Ramos as masculine symbol likened to US eagle. In the same way the small, pure, white, fragrant and delicate sampaguita made it a feminine symbol. Unfortunately the feminism symbolism has dark side if you realized that sampaguita being plucked and offered to visiting dignitaries, a welcome gift to foreigners (a familiar story since Father Damaso). So Jess, you have more to change not just “Philippines” but the national flower, the national bird and national dress as well.

    The Spanish rulers required the indios to wear sheer and light material (barong tagalog) to avoid concealment of weapon and untucked to designated low rank and to tell apart from mestizo and insulares. In addition, the white and translucent garment made the indio women more sexy, appealing and intoxicating like wine for plucking by the conquistadores (again Father Damaso). So there is no shortage of colonial influence. Maria Clara is a popular image of a Filipina. And Juan dela Cruz is colonial upgrade from Juan Tamad embracing the colonialist powerful symbol of the cross from laziness.

    Jezz, I can sense your liberty of defending our national hero on “loving our own tongue” yet loving foreign women over native roots as something global.

    Vegetarian as the word evolves refers to healthy choice and not about women as meat. You would agree having multiple women as unhealthy. That is another thing we have in common.

  37. iech beral

    like the most controversial people in history, gen Aguinaldo was also a victim of different interpretations and biases in historiography…

  38. Amihan

    Philippine Languages/Idioms have a continuum to each other that is the truth if we want to preserve our own culture we should stop trying to distance them from each other, We should allow them to evolve at their natural phase.

Fetch more comments

Leave a Reply